COMPLICATIONS DURING PREGNANCY

Complications during pregnancySome of the common complications during pregnancy are hepatitis-B infection, high blood pressure, diabetes, rh disease, vaginitis or monilia, excessive weight gain, inadequate weight gain, ovarian cysts, etc. These problems can cause serious complications and thus it is advisable that one has to be very careful and vigilant and any signs of trouble must be attended immediately.

HEPATITIS-B INFECTION

It is very important to have the Hepatitis-B test taken during pregnancy. Hepatitis-B infection can be passed on to the foetus during childbirth through the mother. This infection is normally tested and found in the fifth month. If infected babies are left untreated with this disease then there are chances that they become chronic carriers of this disease and are at a greater risk of developing more serious liver problems. If the test results reveal that the mother has this infection then it is possible for the doctors to treat the child right at birth and prevent future complications.

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
High blood pressure also known as Toxaemia, Pre-eclampsia or Hypertension can cause stroke in the mother, growth retardation of the baby, which can cause serious complications. It can also result into loss of the child and also can result in premature delivery. Normally 2%-4% pregnant women develop transient high blood pressure during pregnancy, which is not too serious and lasts only during your pregnancy. Blood pressure drops generally in the 1st and 2nd trimester and again rises only in the 7th month. Therefore one has to keep a check on the systolic reading and if you find your systolic reading rise by 30mm Hg or the diastolic pressure rise by 15mm Hg, which stays up for 2 consecutive readings taken after 6 hours, immediately consult your doctor and take necessary treatment. If it rises even higher in the 3rd trimester, followed by sudden weight gain, swelling and water retention, you could be suffering from pre-eclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension), which requires immediate doctors attention.

HIGH SUGAR LEVELS (OR DIABETES)
During pregnancy glucose is an essential factor for the baby's nourishment and thus your body has to provide enough glucose to the growing foetus. Thus pregnancy triggers anti insulin mechanisms to make sure enough sugar remains circulating in your blood stream to nourish the baby.However sometimes normally in the 2nd trimester, this anti-insulin effect increases and thus more sugar is left behind than what is required by both mother and child. This excessive sugar is passed into the urine. Thus there is no cause for worry as roughly 50% of pregnant women show sugar in their urine. Normally, the body responds to an increased production of insulin, however, some women (2%-4%) may be unable to produce enough insulin at a time to handle this increase, or are unable to use this insulin efficiently. This results in gestational diabetes. The symptoms of gestational diabetes are increase in blood pressure, frequent urination in the 2nd trimester, vaginal infections and excessive hunger and thirst. High sugar levels can cause complications like miscarriages, premature delivery, etc.

RH DISEASE
Rh incompatibility occurs when the mother is Rh negative (Rh-) and the father is Rh positive (Rh+) then the baby may contract the Rh disease if preventive measures are not taken, and the baby's health may be at risk. This disease normally occurs during the second pregnancy. People with no Rh factor in their blood are called Rh negative. In a situation where Rh incompatibility exists, Rh disease occurs when the Rh factor enters the Rh negative's mother's circulatory system during the delivery of a baby who has inherited the Rh factor from his or her father during the first pregnancy. The mother's immune system reacts by producing antibodies to act against the "foreign" substance. If the woman gets pregnant again with a Rh-positive baby, the antibodies cross the placenta and attack the foetal red blood cells which could lead to anemia in the baby. Taking dose of Rh-immune globulin at 28 weeks by the expectant Rh-negative woman, who has no antibodies in her blood, can prevent Rh disease. Another dose is given after 72 hours of delivery if the baby is Rh-positive.

VAGINITIS OR MONILIA
Vaginitis is a vaginal infection that is common in pregnancy. This problem is sometimes also called yeast infection because a type of yeast called "Monila" causes it. Its symptoms are itching, burning, and a vaginal discharge (like white cottage cheese). Monila in the vagina is very harmful for the baby since it affects the baby's mouth by forming a white coating on the baby's mouth and tongue.

WEIGHT GAIN (EXCESSIVE or INADEQUATE)
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is not healthy, either for you or for the baby. Hydramnios is a condition, which is caused when there is, increased amniotic fluid around the baby. This weight around the baby could put pressure on the cervix, causing it to dilate prematurely resulting in a delivery much before your due date. If the foetus is overly large, it could also lead to a difficult delivery. Weight gain due to over-eating can cause serious problems high blood pressure, diabetes etc. However if there is a sudden weight gain accompanied with swelling of hands and face with headache then you should immediately consult your doctor.Similarly inadequate weight gain can also lead to complications. Low weight gain later in the pregnancy (after the first trimester) is not a good sign. It could indicate one of two complications: intrauterine growth retardation or it could indicate oligohydramnios (less amniotic fluid around the foetus). If the intrauterine growth retardation is a result of poor nutrition, it is important that the mother get optimum nutrition in order to provide proper nutrition to herself and also to the baby. Fortunately, the foetus' need for calories and nutrients is quite low in the first trimester. However, in the later stages of pregnancy, if you do not gain any weight for two consecutive weeks, you should consult your doctor.

OVARIAN CYSTS
After a woman ovulates, a yellowish body of cells is formed on the ovary called the corpus luteum. This normally disappears 14 days after it is formed, during the woman's next period. When the woman conceives, the corpus luteum does not disappear because there has been no menstruation. The corpus luteum is sustained by the HCG hormone (generated by cells that form the placenta) during pregnancy. The corpus luteum becomes necessary in a pregnancy because it grows to support and nourish the new pregnancy until the placenta takes over. Normally, the corpus luteum shrinks in about 6-7 weeks and stops functioning by the 10th week. However in a few cases, the corpus luteum fails to regress and becomes a cyst which if not monitored becomes huge or ruptures and then it has to be surgically removed.


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